Norovirus (NV) is a highly contagious enterovirus that mainly causes intestinal symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea.
Perhaps the enterovirus most parents know best about is rotavirus, and norovirus is the second most common pathogen behind rotavirus in causing viral diarrhea in children.
At present, norovirus has been recognized by European and American countries as the primary cause of viral diarrhea and gastroenteritis in adults. In the United States and Europe, more than 50% of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks are caused by norovirus.
What are the characteristics of norovirus?
Norovirus is highly contagious and can cause infection with very small numbers of virus particles (10-100 virus particles).
Norovirus is very tenacious, has the characteristics of low temperature resistance, acid resistance, and is not easy to be inactivated. Even the chlorine (0.5mg-1.0mg/L) aqueous solution used for drinking water disinfection is difficult to inactivate it. Norovirus is still infectious after 3 hours at room temperature (25°C) in a low acid (pH 2.7) environment, or after 18 hours at low temperature (4°C) in 20% ether.
Mutation is fast:
Norovirus mutates very quickly, and new mutated virus strains that cause global epidemics emerge every 2-3 years.
Occurs throughout the year:
Norovirus infection can occur throughout the year, and October to March is the peak season for norovirus epidemics.
Reinfections can be:
Immune protection lasts 6-24 months after norovirus infection. Therefore, the same individual can be re-infected with the same or different strains of norovirus even if they have been previously infected with norovirus.
What are the symptoms of norovirus infection?
Norovirus has a short incubation period and usually develops 24-72 hours after exposure to infection. Symptoms of gastroenteritis appear within 2 hours and most days of exposure to the virus.
The main symptoms are nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain and diarrhea, and even headache, chills and muscle pain. The stool is watery or watery, without mucus, pus and blood. Vomiting is more common in children and diarrhea is more common in adults.
The main symptoms of norovirus infection are nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain and diarrhea.
Although norovirus is highly contagious, it is self-limiting, the disease course is usually short, and most have a good prognosis. Most symptoms disappear or heal on their own after 48-72 hours.
However, in susceptible groups such as immunocompromised people, children or the elderly, a small number of infected people may even experience severe dehydration, kidney failure and even death.
Which routes are susceptible to norovirus infection?
Norovirus is mainly transmitted by the fecal-oral route. It is highly contagious and contains large amounts of the virus in both the feces and vomit of patients. Even after symptoms clear up, infected people shed the virus in their feces for 1-4 weeks.
When an infected patient vomits, the norovirus in the vomit will form tiny droplets that splash to surrounding people or surfaces. It can cause others to be infected through oral mucosa and hand-to-mouth contact.
Food and beverages are easily contaminated by norovirus, and contamination can occur when food is directly touched by hands, droplets, or surfaces that have been in contact with the source of contamination. The virus can also be spread if someone with the virus does not wash their hands, or if someone who is sick handles food and water.
In addition, some shellfish, such as oysters, can transmit norovirus through contaminated water sources.
When is the norovirus epidemic?
Norovirus infection mostly occurs in low temperature times such as winter, and the incidence is high from November to March of the following year, so it is called "winter vomiting disease"; in addition, it is extremely contagious and spreads rapidly, similar to influenza virus, so it is also Some people call it "gastrointestinal flu".
But norovirus infection is not limited to winter and can occur throughout the year.
Moreover, norovirus is not like rotavirus. The susceptible people are mainly infants and children. It is susceptible to people of all ages. Children, the elderly, immunocompromised and organ transplant recipients belong to high-risk infection groups.
Easysweet Norovirus rapid test can quickly detect norovirus, and it takes up to 15 minutes to display the results. It is suitable for children, the elderly, immunocompromised and organ transplant recipients to perform preliminary diagnostic tests and can be of great help.
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