Psychoactive substances, also known as drugs or addictive drugs, refer to chemical substances that can affect human mood, emotion, behavior, change the state of consciousness, and have the potential for dependence. There are many substances that can cause dependence, from the most common cigarettes and alcohol to wild mushrooms. Some are natural and some are semi-synthetic. Some are illegal, some are legal. They each have different pharmacological properties and toxic effects.
According to the pharmacological effects of addictive substances, they are divided into 7 categories:
1 Narcotic analgesics
Narcotic analgesics have sedative, analgesic, antitussive, hypnotic, respiratory depression, cooling and other central inhibitory effects, and there are 5 main chemical classifications.
a. Opioid alkaloids and their derivatives, such as morphine, methylmorphine (codeine, codeine), diacetylmorphine (heroin, heroin), etc.
b. Derivatives of phenylpiperidine, such as mepiridine (pethidine, meperidine), fentanyl (fentanyl), anadu (annon pain, alphaprodine) and so on.
c. Diamphetamine derivatives, such as methadone (methadone), acetylmethadone (acetymethadone, LAAM), propoxyphene (propoxyphene), etc.
d. Morphine derivatives, such as levorphene, etc.
e. Benzomorphan derivatives, such as phenazocine, analgesic new (pentazocine, pentazocine).
2 Central nervous system stimulants
Different from opioid anesthetics, it can make individuals in a state of central excitement such as high alertness, increased activity, emotional excitement, decreased sleep, breathing excitement, vasoconstriction, elevated body temperature, and appetite suppression. There are mainly the following two types of serious abuse:
a. Cocaine is the most addictive of all drugs of abuse at present. Another form of cocaine appeared in the mid-1980s, the free base of cocaine, namely crack, which is highly addictive and has a stronger effect.
b. Amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) is a general term for amphetamine and its derivatives, involving dozens of varieties, with drug dependence (mainly mental dependence), central nervous system excitation, hallucinations, appetite suppression and Pharmacological and toxicological properties such as sympathetic effect. Amphetamine-type stimulants can be divided into four categories according to their different chemical structures and their pharmacological and toxicological properties:
1) Excitatory amphetamines with central nervous system stimuli, representative drugs include amphetamine, methamphetamine (ice), cathinone and methylphenidate, etc.
2) Hallucinogenic amphetamines that cause hallucinations in drug users, representative drugs include dimethoxymethamphetamine (DOM), brominated dimethoxyamphetamine (DOB) and mescaline, etc.
3) Appetite-suppressing amphetamines with an appetite-suppressing effect, including benzmorpholine, diethylpropiophenone, fenfluramine, etc.
4)Mixed amphetamines with both stimulant and hallucinogenic effects, including methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA). "Ecstasy" refers to MDMA.
3 Cannabis-like drugs
Cannabis is an annual herb with many and complex components, among which the most important active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol. Cannabis is a unique psychoactive substance. Its chemical structure and pharmacological effects are difficult to classify into any existing psychoactive drugs. In small doses, it has both stimulant and inhibitory effects. In high doses, it inhibits The main role, in addition, on the immune, reproductive and cardiovascular systems are affected.
4 CNS depressants
It mainly includes three categories: barbiturates, non-barbiturates, and anxiolytics. In addition, alcohol is also a central nervous system depressant.
a. Barbiturates, according to the speed of drug action and the duration of action, for example, barbital and phenobarbital are long-acting, pentobarbital and isopentobarbital are medium-acting, and Cobarbiturates are short-acting.
b. Non-barbiturates, such as hypnotic, hypnotic, aldehyde hydrated chloral, paraaldehyde, etc.
c. Anti-anxiety drugs, such as Propylene Glycol-type Hypnoton (Ningning), Benzodiazepines-type Alprazolam, Triazolam, Clonazepam, Lorazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam , nitrazepam, norzepam, flurazepam, etc.
Without affecting consciousness and memory, it can change people's perception, thinking and emotional state. When a certain dose is reached, it can cause hallucinations and emotional disorders, also known as psychedelic drugs, psychomimetic drugs, etc. There are mainly the following chemical classifications:
a. Indolealkylamines - such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in ergot derivatives, alkyltryptamines and alkoxytryptamines in tryptamine derivatives, and alpha-methylhydroxytryptamines in alkoxytryptamines base tryptamine (AMP), dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and diethyltryptamine (DET).
b. Phenylalkylamine hallucinogens - e.g. North American prickly pear (trimethoxyphenethylamine, mescaline, mescaline), 2-methyl prickly pear, amphetamine, methamphetamine, trimethoprim ( DOM)
c. Other compounds hallucinogens - such as phencyclidine (PCP) and nutmeg, etc.
6 volatile organic solvents
The central action is similar to that of ethanol and barbiturates. The commonly abused volatile solvents are alcohols such as ethanol, methanol and isopropanol, aliphatic hydrocarbons such as gasoline, camphor oil, aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, Toluene, etc., as well as acetone, carbon tetrachloride, Freon and other compounds.
Nicotine (nicotine, nicotine), is the main alkaloid component in tobacco, the effect of nicotine is complex, and it has both excitatory and inhibitory effects.